Mongolian Language Grammar
Chapter 003 - Verb Structure

Topic of this sharing:

- Verb structure
- List of suffixes for verbs

Verb structure

My goal here is to give you, as we saw with the nouns, a list of all the suffixes that can be added to a verb as well as their order.
Once we will have the full list, we will start seeing each suffixes in detail!

A noun can be composed of up to 4 different elements:
ROOT - ХЭВ suffixes (5) - БАЙДАЛ suffixes (5) - then follows either the ХОЛБОХ suffix (6+14) or ТӨГСГӨХ suffix (4+10) each divided in two groups.

As we describe here the FULL list of suffix that can be attached to a verb, the number (44) can be a little concerning. Some of these are used only in formal or literature context. You will be more than comfortable using only a dozen of these. Everything will make sense and feel quite easy as each of those will be explained as well as the "type" of suffix, so if you feel in the dark here, stay at ease, the light is just few lines below!


- The ROOT is what is left of a word once all suffixes has been taken off. It holds the most basic meaning of any word.
For example, the root at the heart of "conformity", is "form.

- The NUMBER suffixes express the number (only one - singular; or more than one - plural) of a particular noun.

- The CASE suffixes are the grammatical function of a noun or pronoun within a phrase, clause, or sentence.

The word "case" is derived from the Latin word "casus" which means "to fall". It is used to describe words that have fallen away from their nominative, or root form.

To use English as an example, it’s essentially the difference between I and me, he and him, she and her. "I fell in love with him" or "He fell in love with me." It helps indicate who or what is doing the action and who or what it’s being done to.

- The POSSESSIVE pronouns or suffix express the possession of the noun it is attached to.


Example:

In Mongolian: Багш нартайгаа
nb: the "
г" is simply used here to connect the two suffix together to avoid having 4 vowels in a row.
In English: With my teachers

List of suffixes for verb

ROOT

ХЭВ (5)

1. Өөрөө үйлдэх
Ø
2. Бусдаар үйлдүүлэх
-уул, -үүл;
-лга, -лгэ, -лго, -лгө;
-га, -гэ, -го, -гө;
-аа, -ээ, -оо, -өө
3. Бусдын эрхэнд
-гд;
-д;

4. Хамтран үйлдэлцэх
-лц
5. Харилцан үйлдэлцэх
-лд

БАЙДАЛ (5)

1. Энгийн
Ø
2. Олноороо
-цгаа, -цгээ, -цгоо, -цгөө
3. Эрчимтэй
-схий
4. Түр
-зна, -знэ, -зно, -знө
5. Бүрмөсөн
-чих

ХОЛБОХ (-)

1. Цагаар
-сан, -сэн, -сон, -сөн;
-ж байна, -ч байна;
-х;
-маар, -мээр, -моор, -мөөр
2. Нөхцөлөөр
-вал, -вэл, -вол, -вөл;
-тал, -тэл, -тол, -төл;
-ж;
-аад, -ээд, -оод, -өөд

ТӨГСГӨХ (-)

1. Цагаар
-жээ, -чээ;
-лаа, -лээ, -лоо, -лөө;

2. Биеэр
I: -я, -е, -ё;
-сугай, -сүгэй;
II: Ø;
-аарай, -ээрэй, -оорой
III: -г

I decided to put the Mongolian terms in the list to be easier for you to find specific information. Below you will find a quick translation of those titles and examples for the different suffixes.
Know that we will see each one thoroughly in specific chapters. This, here, is just to give you a first taste of what is to come!

NUMBER

Ганц тоо - Singular
Олон тоо - Plural


CASE

1. Нэрлэхийн тийн ялгал - To name - Nominative case: This case indicates the subject.
Example: Уул - A mountain

2. Харьяалахын тийн ялгал - To be connected or affiliated - Genitive case: This case illustrates possession. It also corresponds with the preposition "of".
Example: Уулын - Of a mountain

3. Өгөх оршихын тийн ялгал - To give, to exist - Dative Locative case: This case indicates the indirect object of a verb, or a location.
Example: Ууланд - To a mountain

4. Заахын тийн ялгал - To show, to teach - Accusative case: This case indicates the direct object of a verb.
Example: Уулыг - The mountain

5. Гарахын тийн ялгал - To get out - Ablative case: This case indicates movement from something. It can also indicate a cause.
Example: Уулаас - From a/the mountain

6. Үйлдэхийн тийн ялгал - To perpetrate - Instrumental case: This case indicates an object being used as part of an action.
Example: Уулаар - By a/the mountain

7. Хамтрахын тийн ялгал - To join - Comitative case: This case expresses the person or thing that accompanies the subject of the sentence.
Example: Уултай - With a mountain

8. Чиглэхийн тийн ялгал - To move toward - Lative case: This case indicates the direction or destination.
Example: Уулруу - To/In direction of a/the mountain

9. Жишихийн тийн ялгал - To compare - Comparative case: This case shows a likeness to something.
Example: Уул шиг - Like a mountain


POSSESSIVE

1. Биед хамаатуулах - Possessive pronouns as mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs

2. Эзэнд хамаатуулах - Possessive as of or 's.

Happy learning!

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